Title: Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Author(s): Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, At All

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Abstract: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.

Title: Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Author(s): Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, At All

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Abstract: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015).

Title: Biomonitoring of tobacco smoke exposure and self-reported smoking status among general population of Tehran, Iran

Author(s): Mohammad Hoseini, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Saeid Parmy, Hamed Gharibi, Sasan Faridi, Mohammad Sadegh Hasanvand, Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Noushin Rastkari, Nezam Mirzaei, Kazem Naddafi

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Abstract: Exposure to indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. This study examined the level of indoor radon in dwellings of Khorramabad city, by using passive alpha-track detector (CR-39) during winter of 2016.
 In the present study, we detected the concentration of indoor radon in 56 dwellings. A passive sampling instrument (alpha-track detector with CR-39 polycarbonate films) was utilized to measure indoor radon gas concentration. The distribution map of indoor radon concentration was prepared using Arc GIS software.
 Radon concentration in the dwellings varied from 1.08 to 196.78 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 43.43±40.37 Bq/m3. The average annual effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated to be 1.09 mSv. Our results showed a significant difference between the average radon concentrations in houses and apartments, with a higher level in houses.
Indoor radon concentration in 10.1% of the dwellings was determined to be higher than the limit (100 Bq/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization.

Title: The assessment of health impacts and external costs of natural gas-fired power plant of Qom

Author(s): Reza Fouladi Fard, Kazem Naddafi, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi, Mohammad Hadi Dehghani, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand

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Abstract: The external health damage costs of the combined cycle natural gas-fired power plant of Qom were investigated via the simplified impact pathway approach. Emitted particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous pollutants (NO x , CO, and SO2) from the power plant stack were measured The health effects and related costs were estimated by QUERI model from AirPacts according to the emissions, source and stack parameters, pollutant depletion velocities, exposure-response functions, local and regional population density, and detailed meteorological data. The results showed that the main health effect was assigned to the nitrate as restricted activity days (RAD) with 25,240 days/year. For all pollutants, the maximum health damage costs were related to the long-term mortality (49 %), restricted activity days (27 %), and chronic bronchitis (21 %). The annual health damage costs were approximately 4.76 million US$, with the cost being 0.096 US per kWh of generating electricity. Although the health damage costs of gas-fired power plant were lower than those of other heavy fuels, it seems essential to consider the health and environmental damages and focus on the emission control strategies, particularly in site selection for the new power plants and expanding the current ones.

Title:  Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran

Author(s): Akbar Gholampour, Ramin Nabizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Hasan Taghipour, Mohammad Rafee, Zahra Alizadeh, Sasan Faridi, Amir Hossein Mahvi

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Abstract: Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5–4019.9 ng m−3), Fe (272.5–7658.0 ng m−3), Pt (4.7–1994.4 ng m−3), and P (13.6–2054.8 ng m−3( for TSP and Al (217.6–3687.3 ng m−3), Fe (197.1–3724.9 ng m−3), Pt (65.9–2054.5 ng m−3), and P (11.0–756.6 ng m−3( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0–9664.0 ng m−3), Fe (360.0–7221.5 ng m−3), P (229.4–870.5 ng m−3), and Ti (137.3–849.7 ng m−3) for TSP and Al (218.5–4179.6 ng m−3), Fe (106.3–2005.1 ng m−3), P (251.9–908.4 ng m−3), and Ba (10.6–584.9 ng m−3) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088–60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886–20,474 ppm), Ti (894–3481 ppm), and Si (365–4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for developing pollution control strategy, especially vehicle exhaust control, and creating green spaces around the city.

Title:  Indoor radon measurements in residential dwellings in Qom, Iran

Author(s): M. Fahiminia , R. Fouladi Fard , R. Ardani , A. Mohammadbeigi , K. Naddafi , M.S. Hassanvand

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Abstract: Inhalation of radon and its short-lived decay products is one of the ‎most significant sources of exposure to natural radiation. Radon is the second cause ‎of lung cancer in the populations. The present study was carried out under the projects of ‎national radon, with the aim of determining the concentration of indoor in the city of Qom ‎located in the central semi-arid region of Iran.‎ Materials and Methods: Radon measurements were carried out in 123 dwellings ‎using passive sampling with CR-39 detectors for 90 days. The map of radon ‎concentration distribution was prepared using Arc GIS software and the statistical ‎analysis was performed with SPSS version 20. Results: Indoor radon concentrations in Qom dwellings ranged from 15–259 Bq ‎m-‎‎3‎. The arithmetic mean of indoor radon concentrations on basement, ground floors, ‎first floors and second and upper floors were ‎123.43, 87.94, 63.72 and 40.69‎‏ ‏Bq m-3, ‎respectively. Conclusion: A correlation was found between the distances from fault zones and measured ‎indoor radon concentration. In most of cases, radon values were lower in well- ‎ventilated dwellings in comparison with poorly-ventilated ones. Moreover, high radon ‎concentration levels were observed in basements. The results indicated that in 30 ‎places (24.3% of cases), the radon concentrations were higher than the reference levels ‎recommended by the World Health Organization (100 Bq m-3).

Title: Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) attributed to atmospheric O3, NO2, and SO2 using Air Q Model (2011–2012 year

Author(s): Mohammad Ghanbari,  Ghozikaliab, Behzad Heibatic, Kazem Naddafi, Itai Kloogd, Gea Oliveri Contie, Riccardo Polosaf, Margherita Ferrantee

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Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important disease worldwide characterized by chronically poor airflow. The economic burden of COPD on any society can be enormous if not managed.
We applied the approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) using the AirQ2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Center for Environment and Health on air pollutants in Tabriz (Iran) (2011–2012 year). A 1h average of concentrations of ozone (O3), daily average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were used to assess human exposure and health effect in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome and annual number of excess cases of Hospital Admissions for COPD (HA COPD).
The results of this study showed that 2% (95% CI: 0.8–3.1%) of HA COPD were attributed to O3 concentrations over 10 μg/m3. In addition, 0.7 % (95% CI: 0.1–1.8%) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0–1%) of HA COPD were attributed to NO2 and SO2 concentrations over 10 μg/m3 respectively. In this study, we have shown that O3, NO2 and SO2 have a significant impact on COPD hospitalization. Given these results the policy decisions are needed in order to reduce the chronic pulmonary diseases caused by air pollution and furthermore better quantification studies are recommended.

Title: Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran

Author(s): Mohammad Hoseini, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Noushin Rastkari, Saeid Parmy, Sasan Faridi, Ata Rafiee, Kazem Naddafi

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Abstract: In this study, atmospheric concentrations of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tehran megacity were determined to investigate the concentration, distribution, and sources of PAHs in PM10. The health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq through inhalation pathway was also assessed. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) approach was used for quantitative risk estimate, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was calculated. PM10 samples were collected at ten sampling locations during the summer 2013 and winter 2014 by using two independent methods of field sampling. The PM10 concentration in winter (89.55 ± 15.56 μg m−3) was 1.19 times higher than that in summer (75.42 ± 14.93 μg m−3). Sixteen PAHs were measured with the total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 56.98 ± 15.91 to 110.35 ± 57.31 ng m−3 in summer and from 125.87 ± 79.02 to 171.25 ± 73.94 ng m−3 in winter which were much higher than concentrations measured in most similar studies conducted around the world. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to identify PAH emission sources. The results indicated that gasoline-driven vehicles are the major sources of PAHs in the study area. Risk analysis showed that the mean and 90 % probability estimated inhalation ILCRs were 7.85 × 10−6 and 16.78 × 10−6, respectively. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that BaP concentration and cancer slope factor (CSF) contributed most to effect on ILCR mean.

Title: Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and gestational diabetes mellitus in primiparous women

Author(s): Bita Eslami, Kazem Naddafi, Noushin Rastkari, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Abolghasem Djazayeri, Hossein Malekafzali

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Abstract: There is growing evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may play an important role in increasing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
The aim of this study was to examine the association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 10 congeners) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, 8 congeners) and GDM in primiparous women with no family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Title: Urinary benzene as a biomarker of environmental exposure to benzene in males in the general population

Author(s): Mirzaei, N., Naddafi, K., Ramin nabizadeh, Yaghmaeian, K., HAssanvand, M.S., Maroufizadeh, S., Hoseini, M., Adabi, S., Yunesian, M.

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Abstract: Benzene is a known human carcinogenic and a natural ingredient of crude oil and other petroleum products. The burning of biomass also results in a release of benzene. Epidemiological studies show evidence for a causal association between leukemia and exposure to benzene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate urinary benzene as biomarker of exposure to environmental benzene. Urine samples were collected from 73 adult males resident in Tehran, Iran. The urinary level of benzene was analyzed using by head space solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry method (HS-SPME-GC-MS- method). Median value of U-BEN was 0.94μg/l (range from 0.2 to 2.9). The results of this study showed that urinary benzene is higher than values shown in prior studies. Thus, these high values may have undesirable health effects on the people resident in Tehran. Since urinary benzene behave in a similar way to blood benzene, urinary benzene due to the quick accessibility of urine and a non-invasive option is useful for environmental exposure and for epidemiology studies. As a result, the role of passive smoking and high traffic as the most important contributor to benzene exposure is very important.

Title: Association of serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and risk of pre-eclampsia: a case-control study

Author(s): Bita Eslami, Hossein Malekafzali, Noushin Rastkari, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Abolghasem Djazayeri and Kazem Naddafi

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Abstract: There is increasing evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to pre-eclampsia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) as POPs with pre-eclampsia.

Title:  Evidences for confirmation of an epidemic in acute respiratory syndrome crisis among residents of Ahwaz November 2013

Author(s): Etemad, K., Heidari, A., Nadafi, K., Panahi, M.H., Ahmadnejad, E., Malekafzali, S.H., Najmi, M., Idani, E., Amiri, H., Khorami, Z., Rajaee Behbahani, N., Davoodi, F., Taravatmanesh, S., Malekifar, A., Nejatifar, M., Lotfi, M.

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Abstract: Ahvaz has become one of the most polluted cities in the world. Only on 11 November 2013, over one thousand residents in Khuzestan Province attended the nearest health center with severe symptoms, particularly shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and high blood pressure. During a week, more than 7 thousand patients were registered with this syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the evidence for the confirmation of an epidemic in acute respiratory syndrome among the residents of Ahwaz in November 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the data of the use of drugs related to acute respiratory attacks from November 2008 to 2013 in Ahvaz. Then, we conducted a descriptive study on the general population. The sample size was 120 and the study participants included different segments of the general population. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire and the data were analyzed using SPSS.18. Results: The use of the respiratory drugs increased from 2008 to 2013. The drug consumption was markedly higher in November 2013. In the study of the general population, 93% of the participants declared that they had never seen a similar event, and 92.5% mentioned that they had never heard of a similar occurrence. Conclusion: Due to the significant increase in respiratory medicine in November 2013 and the unexpected nature of the event, an epidemic seems to be obvious. © 2016, Iranian Epidemiological Association. All rights reserved.

Title: Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran

Author(s): Mohammad Hoseini, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Noushin Rastkari, Saeid Parmy, Sasan Faridi, Ata Rafiee, Kazem Naddafi

لینک مشاهده مقاله کامل

Abstract: In this study, atmospheric concentrations of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tehran megacity were determined to investigate the concentration, distribution, and sources of PAHs in PM10. The health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq through inhalation pathway was also assessed. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) approach was used for quantitative risk estimate, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was calculated. PM10 samples were collected at ten sampling locations during the summer 2013 and winter 2014 by using two independent methods of field sampling. The PM10 concentration in winter (89.55 ± 15.56 μg m−3) was 1.19 times higher than that in summer (75.42 ± 14.93 μg m−3). Sixteen PAHs were measured with the total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 56.98 ± 15.91 to 110.35 ± 57.31 ng m−3 in summer and from 125.87 ± 79.02 to 171.25 ± 73.94 ng m−3 in winter which were much higher than concentrations measured in most similar studies conducted around the world. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to identify PAH emission sources. The results indicated that gasoline-driven vehicles are the major sources of PAHs in the study area. Risk analysis showed that the mean and 90 % probability estimated inhalation ILCRs were 7.85 × 10−6 and 16.78 × 10−6, respectively. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that BaP concentration and cancer slope factor (CSF) contributed most to effect on ILCR mean.

Title:   Annual and seasonal spatial models for nitrogen oxides in Tehran, Iran

Author(s): Heresh Amini, Seyed-Mahmood Taghavi-Shahri, Sarah B. Henderson, Vahid Hosseini, Hossein Hassankhany, Maryam Naderi, Solmaz Ahadi, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli & Masud Yunesian

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Abstract: Very few land use regression (LUR) models have been developed for megacities in low- and middle-income countries, but such models are needed to facilitate epidemiologic research on air pollution. We developed annual and seasonal LUR models for ambient oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, and NOX) in the Middle Eastern city of Tehran, Iran, using 2010 data from 23 fixed monitoring stations. A novel systematic algorithm was developed for spatial modeling. The R2 values for the LUR models ranged from 0.69 to 0.78 for NO, 0.64 to 0.75 for NO2, and 0.61 to 0.79 for NOx. The most predictive variables were: distance to the traffic access control zone; distance to primary schools; green space; official areas; bridges; and slope. The annual average concentrations of all pollutants were high, approaching those reported for megacities in Asia. At 1000 randomly-selected locations the correlations between cooler and warmer season estimates were 0.64 for NO, 0.58 for NOX, and 0.30 for NO2. Seasonal differences in spatial patterns of pollution are likely driven by differences in source contributions and meteorology. These models provide a basis for understanding long-term exposures and chronic health effects of air pollution in Tehran, where such research has been limited.

Title:  Assessment of noise effects of wind turbine on the general health of staff at wind farm of Manjil, Iran

Author(s): Milad Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi, Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Arash Akbarzadeh

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Abstract: The low-frequency noise generated by wind turbines is known as one of the risk factors for health. The aim of this study was to study the noise effect of wind turbine on the general health of staff at Manjil wind farm. For this purpose, workers were divided into three groups: maintenance, security, and office staff. Equivalent sound levels were measured for each group. Individual’s health data were assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the R software. Statistical analysis results showed that the noise exposure is significantly correlated to all sub-scales of general health, except for depression. The low-frequency noise from wind turbines can cause harmful effects on the health of workers that are too close to the wind turbine and receive very intense noise.

Title: Memory loss risk assessment for the students nearby high-voltage power lines—a case study

Author(s): Mojgan Ghadamgahi, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Monireh Hosseini

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Abstract: With increasing sources of alternating current electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in everyday life, their possible harmful effects on human health are a main area of concern in many countries. Given that children are the most valuable assets of each country, it is of utmost importance to study the effect(s) of EMF exposure on various health aspects of members within this age group. The present research is the first systematic study of the effects of exposure to electric substations on the memory status of male students in the age group of 10 to 12 years. The flux density values of extremely low frequency magnetic field were measured at four elementary schools in Tehran in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. The device was 3-axis (X, Y, and Z) Gauss Meter, model: TES-1394. The students from two schools nearby a high voltage electricity substation (at distances of 30 and 50 m) were selected as the exposed group, and the students of two other schools at further distances of 1390 and 610 m were considered as the control group. To determine the status of working memory in the students, the questionnaire was adapted from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). The completed questionnaires were analyzed by t test and chi-square using SPSS 20. The average magnetic flux density was 0.245 μT at case schools and 0.164 μT at control schools, P < 0.01. The demographic characteristics of the students in the two groups were not statistically different. However, the difference in working memory was significant at the level of 5 %. The results of the questionnaire data showed that students in the control group had better working memory compared to students in case group. The findings revealed a reverse correlation between magnetic flux density and working memory of students (R = −0.255). It is concluded that extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure may have a negative impact on the working memory of children, but further studies are necessary to reach a definitive conclusion.

Title: Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

Author(s): Sajad Zare, Parvin Nassiri, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Akram Pourbakht, Kamal Azam, Taghi Golmohammadi

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Abstract: The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs) on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearmans correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level.

Title: Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

Author(s): Nassiri, P., Zare, S., Monazzam, M., Pourbakht, A., Azam, K., Golmohammadi, T.

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Abstract: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL) and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30-11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift.

Title: Analytical comparison of traffic noise indices—a case study in district 14 of Tehran city

Author(s): Parvin Nassiri, Elham Karimi, Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Majid Abbaspour, Lobat Taghavi

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Abstract: Noise pollution is a growing concern of majority of people around the world. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to analyze, for the first time, traffic noise indices and to introduce an optimal noise index for road traffic noise. For this purpose, the District 14 of Tehran Metropolitan City was selected as a case study wherein a total number of 91 stations were selected so as to cover noise susceptible areas. The measurements were performed at three occasions of morning, noon, and evening. In order to estimate the traffic noise index, noise pollution level, and noise impact index, the L10, L50, and L90, were recorded at each station with 40 replicates. According to the obtained results, among different land uses in the study area, the maximum and minimum traffic noise index values of 113.7 dBA and 50.1 dBA were reported from educational land use. The highest noise pollution level of 96.8 dBA was measured at the educational land use while the lowest noise pollution level of 65 dBA was recorded at the medical land use. The noise impact index value was estimated at 1.5 for the entire region indicating noise level is much higher than the acceptable threshold for residents. Overall, noise pollution level would be a better index when the objective is to measure the overall noise pollution condition in the study area, whereas it gives much more weight to the difference between the ambient and peak noise levels. However, in situations where traffic-induced noise measurement is required, the traffic noise index seems more appropriate. Further, the noise impact index would be more useful to quantify the effect of noise pollution on exposed people.

Title: Noise pollution in old and new urban fabric with focus on traffic flow

Author(s): Mohammad R Monazzam, Vahideh Abolhasannejad, Bibi Narjes Moasheri, Vahid Abolhasannejad, Hamid Kardanmoghaddam

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Abstract: Noise pollution is considered as one of the effective factors affecting people’s quality of life in urban areas throughout the world. Traffic is a major source of noise in urban areas with wide ranging effects on human. The present study aims to determine the mean of noise levels in old and new urban fabric and their relationship with the traffic flow. Acoustic survey was performed during one week in each month of the summer in assigned stations. In this investigation, using a sound level meter and BS 7445-1-2003, BS 7445-3-1991, Leq10 min was measured and the percentage of highly annoyed people was estimated. The data were analyzed by using statistical tests and SPSS software. The results show that the mean of noise levels measured in all stations during the three months of the summer was higher than the standard limit. The relationship between the mean of noise level and the traffic flow in areas in new fabric was significant but not in those in old fabric. Higher rates of noise pollution in old fabrics and lack of significant relationship with the traffic flow in those points show that noise pollution can be reduced in the city to a great extent by considering effective traffic rules, widening crowded streets, and improving those conditions that govern urbanization. Of course, the amount of the porosity of asphalt, bumpy streets, and even technical defect of motor vehicles should not be ignored.

Title: Relationship between demographic variables and basnef training constructs in promoting the use of hearing protection devices among industrial workers

Author(s): Monazzam, M.R., Majlessi, F., Madvari, R.F., Foroushani, A.R.

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Abstract: The last way of noise control is using hearing protective devices that maybe the first way of noise control in some industries. Obviously if the hearing protection device is not used continuously and properly, its actual performance is reduced. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between demographic variables and BASNEF training constructs in promoting hearing protection device use for longer durations. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out in which 50 individuals participated in each group. A questionnaire was developed based on BASNEF training contracts and participants completed the questionnaire before and three months after the intervention. The intervention was performed according to BASNEF training model in experimental group using both theoretical and practical methods, while the control group received no trainings. Results: Before the intervention, significant correlations were observed between the awareness construct and age, attitude, influencing people and educational level, and also between enabling factors and marital status (P<0.05). After the intervention, there were significant correlations between influencing people, performance constructs and educational level (P<0.05). But there was no significant correlation between the constructs of BASNEF training model and job experience (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on our findings, there was a strong correlation between influencing people construct and educational level, therefore, they require further attention when planning for training programs in promoting the use of hearing protection devices for longer durations. © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Title: Noise levels of a Massey Fergusson 285 tractor during movement on dirt and paved roads

Author(s): Ghotbi Ravandi, M.R.; Monazzam, M.R.; Khanjani, N.; Momen Bellah Fard, S.; Nadir, H.; Nadri, F

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Abstract: This study aimed to determine the noise levels of a Massey Fergusson 285 tractor during movement on dirt and paved roads. The Massey Fergusson 285, 75 hp tractor accompanied by a trailer with one-ton load travelled on dirt and paved roads. The test field had 20 m length and 3 m width as defined according to international standards. The sound levels were measured with different gears and for engine speeds of 1000 and 2000 rpm at bystander position and right ear of operator. The difference between A-weighted sound levels for bystanders and right ear of operator, in engine speed of 1000 for dirt and paved roads, was 13.7-15.9 and 10.9-14.7 dB and, in engine speed of 2000, was 12.7-16.1 and 9.8-13.8 dB, respectively. In the bystander position, the sound levels for both engine speeds were lower on the dirt road compared to the paved road. The sound level at the right ear of the operator at engine speed of 1000 rpm was lower than ACGIH standards (85 dB whereas it was higher in engine speed of 2000 rpm for both roads, except in first low and first high gears on the dirt road. Based on similar distance for measurement points on both roads, the lower acoustic impedance of dirt compared with pavement surface provides less noise reflection which leads to lower noise levels in bystander position. The farmers who work near dirt roads are exposed to lower sound levels than those working near paved roads.