Title: Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5in two locations in central Tehran using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model

Author(s): Sina Taghvaee, Mohammad H. Sowlat, Amirhosein Mousavi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand,Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi, Constantinos Sioutas

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Abstract: In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used for source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in two locations in the central Tehran from May 2012 through June 2013. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 30.9 and 33.2 μg/m3 in Tohid retirement home and the school dormitory, respectively. Metals and trace elements, water-soluble ions, and PM2.5 mass concentrations were used as inputs to the model. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and meteorological data were also used as auxiliary variables to help with the factor identification and interpretation. A 7-factor solution was identified as the best solution for both sites. The identified source factors included vehicular emissions, secondary aerosol, industrial emissions, biomass burning, soil, and road dust (including tire and brake wear particles) in both sampling sites. Results indicated that almost half of PM2.5 mass can be attributed to vehicular emissions at both sites. Secondary aerosol was the second major contributor to PM2.5 mass concentrations at both sites, with contributions of around 25% on average for both sites. In addition, while two industrial factors were identified in Tohid retirement home (with an overall contribution of 17%), only one industrial factor (with a minimal contribution of <2%) was identified at Tohid retirement home, probably due to the fact that the retirement home is impacted to a higher degree by industry-related activities. The other factors included biomass burning, road dust, and soil, with overall contributions of around 20% in both sites. Results of this study clearly indicate the major role of traffic-related emissions (both tailpipe and non-tailpipe) on ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and can be used as a beneficial tool for air quality policy makers to mitigate adverse health effects of exposure to PM2.5.

Title: Long-term trends and health impact of PM2.5and O3in Tehran, Iran, 2006– 2015

Author(s): Sasan Faridi, Masour Shamsipour, Michal Krzyzanowski, Nino Kunzli, Heresh Amini, Faramarz Azimi, Mazen Malkawi, Fatemeh Momeniha, Akbar Gholampour, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Kazem Naddafi

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Abstract: The main objectives of this study were (1) investigation of the temporal variations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) concentrations in Tehran megacity, the capital and most populous city in Iran, over a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015, and (2) estimation of their long-term health effects including all-cause and cause-specific mortality. For the first goal, the data of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations, measured at 21 regulatory monitoring network stations in Tehran, were obtained and the temporal trends were investigated. The health impact assessment of PM2.5 and O3 was performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) AirQ+ software updated in 2016 by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. Local baseline incidences in Tehran level were used to better reveal the health effects associated with PM2.5 and O3. Our study showed that over 2006–2015, annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 varied from 24.7 to 38.8 μg m−3 and 35.4 to 76.0 μg m−3, respectively, and were significantly declining in the recent 6 years (2010–2015) for PM2.5 and 8 years (2008–2015) for O3. However, Tehran citizens were exposed to concentrations of annual PM2.5 exceeding the WHO air quality guideline (WHO AQG) (10 μg m−3), U.S. EPA and Iranian standard levels (12 μg m−3) during entire study period. We estimated that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 contributed to between 24.5% and 36.2% of mortality from cerebrovascular disease (stroke), 19.8% and 24.1% from ischemic heart disease (IHD), 13.6% and 19.2% from lung cancer (LC), 10.7% and 15.3% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 15.0% and 25.2% from acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and 7.6% and 11.3% from all-cause annual mortality in the time period. We further estimated that deaths from IHD accounted for most of mortality attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5. The years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM2.5 was estimated to vary from 67,970 to 106,706 during the study period. In addition, long-term exposure to O3 was estimated to be responsible for 0.9% to 2.3% of mortality from respiratory diseases. Overall, long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and O3 contributed substantially to mortality in Tehran megacity. Air pollution is a modifiable risk factor. Appropriate sustainable control policies are recommended to protect public health.

Title: Indoor radon measurement in dwellings of Khorramabad City, Iran

Author(s): Hedieh Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Mehdi Birjandi, bahram kamarehie, ali jafari

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Abstract: Exposure to indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. This study examined the level of indoor radon in dwellings of Khorramabad city, by using passive alpha-track detector (CR-39) during winter of 2016.
 In the present study, we detected the concentration of indoor radon in 56 dwellings. A passive sampling instrument (alpha-track detector with CR-39 polycarbonate films) was utilized to measure indoor radon gas concentration. The distribution map of indoor radon concentration was prepared using Arc GIS software.
 Radon concentration in the dwellings varied from 1.08 to 196.78 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 43.43±40.37 Bq/m3. The average annual effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated to be 1.09 mSv. Our results showed a significant difference between the average radon concentrations in houses and apartments, with a higher level in houses.
Indoor radon concentration in 10.1% of the dwellings was determined to be higher than the limit (100 Bq/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization.

Title: Study of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1levels in during dust storms and local air pollution events in urban and rural sites in Tehran

Author(s): Jalil Jaafari, Kazem Naddafi, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Mohammad Ghanbari Ghozikali, Shahrokh Nazmara, Hamid Reza Shamsollahi, Kamyar Yaghmaeian

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Abstract: The aim of this study is to survey the PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrat ionsin rural and urban areas in Tehran province during cold, warm and duststorm days from December 22, 2016 to June 5, 2017 using Grimm Modelaerosol spectrometer. During the study period, daily PM10,PM2.5, andPM1 concentrations ranged from 27.2 to 244.96, 8.4 to 77.9, and 6.5 to56.8 mg/m3 in urban sites, and 22.8 to 286.4, 6 to41.1,and 2.1 to 20.2 mg/m3 in rural parts, respectively. Particularly, both daily WHO limitsfor outdoor PM10 (50.0 mg/m3) and PM2.5 (25.0 mg/m3) exceeded in 95%and 83% of the outdoor measurements in winter and 82% and 58% intotal sampled days in urban site, respectively. The 24-h average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations also exceeded by 59% and 18% in winter and by36% and 14% of all sampling days in rural site, respectively. During the
dust storm, the 24-h average PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations were,respectively 4.7, 2, and 1.96 times higher than those in urban site and 2,
1.7, and 1.3 times more than those in rural site in all sampled days.

Title:  Prevalence of asthma and associated factors among male late adolescents in Tabriz, Iran

Author(s): Ghozikali, M.G.Ansarin, K.Naddafi, K.Nodehi, R.N.Yaghmaeian, M.S.Hassanvand, M.Yunesian

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Abstract: Asthma is an important chronic disease all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in a population of male late adolescents and its association with some contributing risk factors in northwest of Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected high schools of Tabriz, Iran, in 2016. The asthma prevalence and patient background information were examined using a questionnaire that prepared by the ISAAC. One hundred forty-two out of 1134 subjects (12.4%) identified to have asthma, 23.3% had history of current wheeze, and 16.3% had wheezing in the previous year. Family history of asthma was present in 17.1% of the participants; prevalence of active smoking in the study subjects was 3.1%; 25.1% of all subjects had exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and keeping pets at home was present in 9.1%. Excess weight (overweight and obesity) was positively associated with prevalence of asthma (p < 0.001). No statistically significant associations were observed between asthma and father’s education level (p = 0.570), mother’s education level (p = 0.584), type of birth subjects (p = 0.571), and time spent outdoors during a full day (p = 0.863). Our results suggest that family history of asthma and atopy, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, active smoking, amount of automobile traffic around subjects’ home, and keeping pets at homes are important risk factors for asthma, while time spent outdoors, educations of parents, and delivery type (normal vaginal delivery vs. C-section) subjects are not. Therefore, decreased of exposure to some environmental risk factors could be effective to reduce rate of the prevalence of asthma and wheeze.

Title: The relation between air pollution and respiratory deaths in Tehran, Iran- using generalized additive models

Author(s): Dehghan, A., Khanjani, N., Bahrampour, A., Goudarzi, G., Yunesian, M.

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Abstract: Some epidemiological evidence has shown a relation between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of air pollution on mortality from respiratory diseases in Tehran, Iran.

Title: Combined effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Esmaeil Shoja, Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Mohsen Shoja, Masoumeh Gharaee, Amin Asgari

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Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting, as well as their combined effect on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time in laboratory conditions.