Title: Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5in two locations in central Tehran using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model

Author(s): Sina Taghvaee, Mohammad H. Sowlat, Amirhosein Mousavi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand,Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi, Constantinos Sioutas

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Abstract: In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used for source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in two locations in the central Tehran from May 2012 through June 2013. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 30.9 and 33.2 μg/m3 in Tohid retirement home and the school dormitory, respectively. Metals and trace elements, water-soluble ions, and PM2.5 mass concentrations were used as inputs to the model. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and meteorological data were also used as auxiliary variables to help with the factor identification and interpretation. A 7-factor solution was identified as the best solution for both sites. The identified source factors included vehicular emissions, secondary aerosol, industrial emissions, biomass burning, soil, and road dust (including tire and brake wear particles) in both sampling sites. Results indicated that almost half of PM2.5 mass can be attributed to vehicular emissions at both sites. Secondary aerosol was the second major contributor to PM2.5 mass concentrations at both sites, with contributions of around 25% on average for both sites. In addition, while two industrial factors were identified in Tohid retirement home (with an overall contribution of 17%), only one industrial factor (with a minimal contribution of <2%) was identified at Tohid retirement home, probably due to the fact that the retirement home is impacted to a higher degree by industry-related activities. The other factors included biomass burning, road dust, and soil, with overall contributions of around 20% in both sites. Results of this study clearly indicate the major role of traffic-related emissions (both tailpipe and non-tailpipe) on ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and can be used as a beneficial tool for air quality policy makers to mitigate adverse health effects of exposure to PM2.5.

Title: Long-term trends and health impact of PM2.5and O3in Tehran, Iran, 2006– 2015

Author(s): Sasan Faridi, Masour Shamsipour, Michal Krzyzanowski, Nino Kunzli, Heresh Amini, Faramarz Azimi, Mazen Malkawi, Fatemeh Momeniha, Akbar Gholampour, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Kazem Naddafi

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Abstract: The main objectives of this study were (1) investigation of the temporal variations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) concentrations in Tehran megacity, the capital and most populous city in Iran, over a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015, and (2) estimation of their long-term health effects including all-cause and cause-specific mortality. For the first goal, the data of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations, measured at 21 regulatory monitoring network stations in Tehran, were obtained and the temporal trends were investigated. The health impact assessment of PM2.5 and O3 was performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) AirQ+ software updated in 2016 by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. Local baseline incidences in Tehran level were used to better reveal the health effects associated with PM2.5 and O3. Our study showed that over 2006–2015, annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 varied from 24.7 to 38.8 μg m−3 and 35.4 to 76.0 μg m−3, respectively, and were significantly declining in the recent 6 years (2010–2015) for PM2.5 and 8 years (2008–2015) for O3. However, Tehran citizens were exposed to concentrations of annual PM2.5 exceeding the WHO air quality guideline (WHO AQG) (10 μg m−3), U.S. EPA and Iranian standard levels (12 μg m−3) during entire study period. We estimated that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 contributed to between 24.5% and 36.2% of mortality from cerebrovascular disease (stroke), 19.8% and 24.1% from ischemic heart disease (IHD), 13.6% and 19.2% from lung cancer (LC), 10.7% and 15.3% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 15.0% and 25.2% from acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and 7.6% and 11.3% from all-cause annual mortality in the time period. We further estimated that deaths from IHD accounted for most of mortality attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5. The years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM2.5 was estimated to vary from 67,970 to 106,706 during the study period. In addition, long-term exposure to O3 was estimated to be responsible for 0.9% to 2.3% of mortality from respiratory diseases. Overall, long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and O3 contributed substantially to mortality in Tehran megacity. Air pollution is a modifiable risk factor. Appropriate sustainable control policies are recommended to protect public health.

Title: Indoor radon measurement in dwellings of Khorramabad City, Iran

Author(s): Hedieh Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Mehdi Birjandi, bahram kamarehie, ali jafari

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Abstract: Exposure to indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. This study examined the level of indoor radon in dwellings of Khorramabad city, by using passive alpha-track detector (CR-39) during winter of 2016.
 In the present study, we detected the concentration of indoor radon in 56 dwellings. A passive sampling instrument (alpha-track detector with CR-39 polycarbonate films) was utilized to measure indoor radon gas concentration. The distribution map of indoor radon concentration was prepared using Arc GIS software.
 Radon concentration in the dwellings varied from 1.08 to 196.78 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 43.43±40.37 Bq/m3. The average annual effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated to be 1.09 mSv. Our results showed a significant difference between the average radon concentrations in houses and apartments, with a higher level in houses.
Indoor radon concentration in 10.1% of the dwellings was determined to be higher than the limit (100 Bq/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization.

Title: Study of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1levels in during dust storms and local air pollution events in urban and rural sites in Tehran

Author(s): Jalil Jaafari, Kazem Naddafi, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Mohammad Ghanbari Ghozikali, Shahrokh Nazmara, Hamid Reza Shamsollahi, Kamyar Yaghmaeian

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Abstract: The aim of this study is to survey the PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrat ionsin rural and urban areas in Tehran province during cold, warm and duststorm days from December 22, 2016 to June 5, 2017 using Grimm Modelaerosol spectrometer. During the study period, daily PM10,PM2.5, andPM1 concentrations ranged from 27.2 to 244.96, 8.4 to 77.9, and 6.5 to56.8 mg/m3 in urban sites, and 22.8 to 286.4, 6 to41.1,and 2.1 to 20.2 mg/m3 in rural parts, respectively. Particularly, both daily WHO limitsfor outdoor PM10 (50.0 mg/m3) and PM2.5 (25.0 mg/m3) exceeded in 95%and 83% of the outdoor measurements in winter and 82% and 58% intotal sampled days in urban site, respectively. The 24-h average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations also exceeded by 59% and 18% in winter and by36% and 14% of all sampling days in rural site, respectively. During the
dust storm, the 24-h average PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations were,respectively 4.7, 2, and 1.96 times higher than those in urban site and 2,
1.7, and 1.3 times more than those in rural site in all sampled days.

Title:  Prevalence of asthma and associated factors among male late adolescents in Tabriz, Iran

Author(s): Ghozikali, M.G.Ansarin, K.Naddafi, K.Nodehi, R.N.Yaghmaeian, M.S.Hassanvand, M.Yunesian

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Abstract: Asthma is an important chronic disease all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in a population of male late adolescents and its association with some contributing risk factors in northwest of Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected high schools of Tabriz, Iran, in 2016. The asthma prevalence and patient background information were examined using a questionnaire that prepared by the ISAAC. One hundred forty-two out of 1134 subjects (12.4%) identified to have asthma, 23.3% had history of current wheeze, and 16.3% had wheezing in the previous year. Family history of asthma was present in 17.1% of the participants; prevalence of active smoking in the study subjects was 3.1%; 25.1% of all subjects had exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and keeping pets at home was present in 9.1%. Excess weight (overweight and obesity) was positively associated with prevalence of asthma (p < 0.001). No statistically significant associations were observed between asthma and father’s education level (p = 0.570), mother’s education level (p = 0.584), type of birth subjects (p = 0.571), and time spent outdoors during a full day (p = 0.863). Our results suggest that family history of asthma and atopy, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, active smoking, amount of automobile traffic around subjects’ home, and keeping pets at homes are important risk factors for asthma, while time spent outdoors, educations of parents, and delivery type (normal vaginal delivery vs. C-section) subjects are not. Therefore, decreased of exposure to some environmental risk factors could be effective to reduce rate of the prevalence of asthma and wheeze.

Title: The relation between air pollution and respiratory deaths in Tehran, Iran- using generalized additive models

Author(s): Dehghan, A., Khanjani, N., Bahrampour, A., Goudarzi, G., Yunesian, M.

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Abstract: Some epidemiological evidence has shown a relation between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of air pollution on mortality from respiratory diseases in Tehran, Iran.

Title: Combined effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Monazzam, Esmaeil Shoja, Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Mohsen Shoja, Masoumeh Gharaee, Amin Asgari

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Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration and ambient lighting, as well as their combined effect on human discomfort, heart rate, and reaction time in laboratory conditions.

Title: Investigation and Comparison of In Vitro Genotoxic Potency of PM10 Collected in Rural and Urban Sites at Tehran in Different Metrological Conditions and Different Seasons

Author(s): Ghanbarian, M, Nicknam, M.H, Mesdaghinia, A., Yunesian, M, Hassanvand, M.S., Soleimanifar, N, Rezaei, S, Atafar, Z, Ghanbarian, M, Faraji, M, Ghozikali, M.G, Naddafi, K,

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Abstract: The particulate matter has become a serious health problem in some large cities in the world. These particles are a complex mixture of chemical compounds which change based on location and time and, consequently, can cause different health-related effects. The exact mechanism of the effect of these particles is not yet known for certain. However, it seems that numerous mechanisms through the production of ROS and, eventually, DNA destruction, which are related to a wide range of diseases, are among the causes of particles’ health-related effects. The present study is aimed to evaluate and compare the genotoxicity potential of particles collected in Tehran, Iran, in urban and rural regions during spring and autumn as well as dusty and inversion conditions. These effects were examined using the comet assay on human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Results showed that all the particles had the potential for genotoxicity at the concentration used in this study (75,150 and 300 μg/ml). Moreover, DNA destruction changed with season, site, and even dusty and inversion atmospheric conditions. These changes mostly belonged to urban particles. In general, urban particles in autumn and, specifically, on days with inversion had higher genotoxicity (p < 0.01). Difference was observed between dusty and regular days so that regular days were more potent (p < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the effects of most PAH compounds and other metals such as Cr, Co, Cd, Mn, As, and also SO4, which were mostly the result of combustion in vehicle engines in urban regions. No difference was observed for rural particles at different conditions and seasons.

Title: Effects of airborne particulate matter (PM10 ) from dust storm and thermal inversion on global DNA methylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro

Author(s): Faraji, M, Pourpak, Z, Naddafi, K, Nodehi, R.N, Nicknam, M.H, Shamsipour, M, Rezaei, S., Ghozikali, M.G, Ghanbarian, M, Mesdaghinia, A

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Abstract: Scientists have considered epigenetic modifications as a possible mechanism to deal with adverse effects of air pollution. This study aimed to compare the effect of PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) from dust storm and inversion conditions on in vitro global methylation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PM10 was sampled in Tehran, Iran, at a point impacted with dust storm and inversion. PM toxicity was determined using the MTT assay. PBMCs were extracted from whole blood of healthy males and treated separately with a mixture of pooled PM10 from inversion and dusty conditions at concentrations of 50–300 μg/mL for 4 h. Untreated cells were used as the negative control. Moreover, 5-methylsytosine (%5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (%5-hmC) were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Daily average PM10 concentrations in dusty and inversion days were 348.40 and 220.54 μg/m3, respectively. The mean of %5-mC (2.04 ± 1.49%) was estimated 12 times more than that of %5-hmC (0.17 ± 0.11%). PM10 resulting from the both sources caused DNA hypomethylation; however, this effect from inversion (median = 3%, IQR = 2.4%) was found to be significantly more than that from dust storm (median = 1.1%, IQR = 1.38%). Moreover, particles increased %5-hmC caused by PM10, which was significantly greater when resulting from inversion (0.23 ± 0.1%) than from dust storm (0.12 ± 0.09%). Furthermore, %5-mC and %5-hmC were significantly different at different PM10 concentrations (50–300 μg/mL) so that a significant difference was observed between %5-mC and %5-hmC at extreme concentrations. Results showed that PM10 from inversion caused a significantly more global methylation than that from dust storm. It can be concluded that measurement of 5-mC and 5-hmC as epigenetic modifications in environmental studies of DNA methylation can be a good procedure to determine health effects related to PM10 exposure.

Title: Correction to: Investigation and Comparison of In Vitro Genotoxic Potency of PM10 Collected in Rural and Urban Sites at Tehran in Different Metrological Conditions and Different Seasons (Biological Trace Element Research, (2018), 10.1007/s12011-018-1469-9)

Author(s): Ghanbarian, M, Nicknam, M.H, Mesdaghinia, A, Yunesian, M, Hassanvand, M.S, Soleimanifar, N, Rezaei, S, Atafar, Z, Ghanbarian, M, Faraji, M, Ghozikali, M.G, Naddafi, K

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Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Figure 6 caption should be “The light microscopic image (a) and transmission electron microscopic image (b) of A549 cell after 24 h of exposure to PM10 (150 μg/ml).

Title: Source-specific lung cancer risk assessment of ambient PM2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in central Tehran

Author(s): Taghvaee, S, Sowlat, M.H, Hassanvand, M.S, Yunesian, M, Naddafi, K, Sioutas, C

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Abstract: In this study, source-specific cancer risk characterization of ambient PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed in central Tehran. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied for source apportionment of PAHs in the area from May 2012 through May 2013. The PMF runs were carried out using chemically analyzed PAHs mass concentrations. Five factors were identified as the major sources of airborne PAHs in central Tehran, including petrogenic sources and petroleum residue, natural gas and biomass burning, industrial emissions, diesel exhaust emissions, and gasoline exhaust emissions, with approximately similar contributions of around 20% to total PAHs concentration from each factor. Results of the PMF source apportionment (i.e., PAHs factor profiles and contributions) were then used to calculate the source-specific lung cancer risks for outdoor and lifetime exposure, using the benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) equivalent method. Our risk assessment analysis indicated that the lung cancer risk associated with each specific source is within the range of 10−6–10−5, posing cancer risks exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agencys (USEPA) guideline safety values (10−6). Furthermore, the epidemiological lung cancer risk for lifetime exposure to total ambient PAHs was found to be (2.8 ± 0.78) × 10−5. Diesel exhaust and industrial emissions were the two sources with major contributions to the overall cancer risk, contributing respectively to 39% and 27% of the total risk associated with exposure to ambient PAHs. Results from this study provide an estimate of the cancer risk caused by exposure to ambient PAHs in highly crowded areas in central Tehran, and can be used as a guide for the adoption of effective air quality policies in order to reduce the human exposure to these harmful organic species.

Title: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and autism spectrum disorder in children: A case-control study in Tehran, Iran  

Author(s): Yousefian, F, Mahvi, A.H, Yunesian, M, Hassanvand, M.S, Kashani, H, Amini, H

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Abstract: Some recent human and animal studies have suggested that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and contribute to neurodevelopmental outcomes, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased odds of ASD among 2 to 10-year-old children. We conducted a case-control study in Tehran, Iran. Cases were 134 children born between 2004 and 2012 diagnosed with ASD whose mothers were resident in Tehran during their pregnancy, and controls were 388 children without ASD randomly selected from public schools and kindergartens. Land-use regression models were used to estimate their annual mean exposure to ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, o-xylene, m-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. Logistic regression was used for the analyses and adjusted for possible confounding variables. The odds ratios per 1 unit increase in pollutants in the adjusted models were 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.01) for PM10, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.00) for SO2, 0.96 (0.83, 1.11) for benzene, 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) for toluene, 0.95 (0.79, 1.16) for ethylbenzene, 1.00 (0.78, 1.27) for p-xylene, 1.09 (0.94, 1.27) for o-xylene, 1.01 (0.92, 1.12) for m-xylene, and 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) for total BTEX. We did not find the evidence of association between estimated annual mean exposure to abovementioned ambient air pollutants and increased odds of ASD in children. However, our findings might be due to some important limitations. Further research with better control of confounding variables, improved spatiotemporal exposure estimates, and inclusion of other important markers of air pollution is recommended.

Title: The relation between air pollution and respiratory deaths in Tehran, Iran- using generalized additive models

Author(s): Dehghan, A, Khanjani, N, Bahrampour, A, Goudarzi, G, Yunesian, M

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Abstract: Background: Some epidemiological evidence has shown a relation between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of air pollution on mortality from respiratory diseases in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this ecological study, air pollution data was inquired from the Tehran Province Environmental Protection Agency and the Tehran Air Quality Control Company. Meteorological data was collected from the Tehran Meteorology Organization and mortality data from the Tehran Cemetery Mortality Registration. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) was used for data analysis with different lags, up to 15 days. A 10-unit increase in all pollutants except CO (1-unit) was used to compute the Relative Risk of deaths. Results: During 2005 until 2014, 37,967 respiratory deaths occurred in Tehran in which 21,913 (57.7%) were male. The strongest relationship between NO2 and PM10and respiratory death was seen on the same day (lag 0), and was respectively (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.04). O3 and PM2.5 had the strongest relationship with respiratory deaths on lag 2 and 1 respectively, and the RR was equal to 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 and 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10 respectively. NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 also showed significant relations with respiratory deaths in the older age groups. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 air pollutants were related to respiratory deaths in Tehran. Reducing ambient air pollution can save lives in Tehran.

Title: Short-term effects of particle size fractions on lung function of late adolescents

Author(s): Ghozikali, M.G, Ansarin, K, Naddafi, K, Nodehi, R.N, Yaghmaeian, K, Hassanvand, M.S, Kashani, H, Jaafari, J, Atafar, Z, Faraji, M, Ghanbarian, M, Rezaei, S, Seyedrezazadeh, E, Goudarzi, G, Yunesian, M

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Abstract: Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy students, longitudinal studies that compare the response of asthmatic and healthy adolescents are lacking. To evaluate lung function responses to short-term ambient air particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) levels, we conducted a study on high school students aged 15–18 years. The aim of this study was to assess effects of acute exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) on lung function in healthy and asthmatic late adolescents. We examined associations of lung function indices and ambient PM levels in 23 asthmatic and 23 healthy students. Paired-samples T test was used to evaluate the association of exposure to airborne PM concentrations with lung function test results (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25–75). We observed negative impact of exposure to an increased concentration of ambient air PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 on lung function parameters of asthmatic and healthy late adolescents. These findings are consistent with other similar short-term studies which have confirmed the adverse effect of PM air pollution. These associations were stronger in asthmatic subjects compared with those in healthy ones. There are significant adverse effects of ambient air PM on pulmonary function of adolescents, especially asthmatics.